Top 25 Surrealism artists who changed its history

The early 20th century art movement known as surrealism was distinguished by its use of symbolism and dreamlike images. Surrealist painters questioned conventional ideas of truth and beauty by attempting to access the subconscious mind.

Salvador Dal, one of the most well-known Surrealist painters, frequently used melting clocks, warped characters, and bizarre landscapes in his works. René Magritte, another well-known Surrealist, was noted for his inventive use of commonplace items, such as the pipe with the text “This is not a pipe” (“This is not a pipe”).

Max Ernst, Joan Miró, and André Breton, a key figure in the movement and the author of the Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, are more noteworthy Surrealist artists.

1. Salvador Dalí

Surrealism artists

Born: 11 May 1904, Figueres, Spain

Died: 23 January 1989, Figueres, Spain

Periods: Surrealism, Cubism, Modern art, Dada

Spouse: Gala Dalí (m. 1934–1982

  • Salvador Dali was a Spanish surrealist artist who was famous for his technical expertise.
  • He began to move towards Surrealism in the latter part of the 1920s and joined the Surrealist group in 1929.
  • Dali was a resident of France through his time in France during the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939) before relocating to America in the United States in 1940, where Dali achieved commercial success.
  • In 1948, he returned to Spain 1948. He declared that he was returning to his Catholic faith and further developed the “nuclear mysticism” style.
  • His major themes include dreams, unconscious religion, sexuality and science, as well as his close personal relationships.


2. René Magritte

Surrealism artists

Born: 21 November 1898, Lessines, Belgium

Died: 15 August 1967, Schaerbeek, Schaerbeek, Belgium

Influenced by: André Breton, Sigmund Freud, Jack Boynton

Education: Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Brussels (1916–1918

Place of burial: Communal cemetery Schaerbeek, Evere, Belgium

  • Rene Magritte was a Belgian surrealist artist who was well-known for creating many funny and thought-provoking photos.
  • His work has been influenced by the pop arts, minimalism, and conceptual art.
  • He started drawing lessons in the year 1910.
  • According to a legend 13-year-old, Magritte was in the room at the time her body was pulled from the water. However, recent studies have discredited this legend that may have started through the family nurse.
  • The first of Magritte’s paintings that date back to 1915 included Impressionistic and slick.


3. Pablo Picasso

Surrealism artists

Born: 25 October 1881, Málaga, Spain

Died: 8 April 1973, Mougins, France

Periods: Cubism, Surrealism, Modern art, Picasso’s

  • Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish artist, sculptor, painter artist, printmaker, ceramicist, and theatre designer.
  • He is famous for his role in being the co-founder of The Cubist movement, which was the first to develop the concept of the constructed sculpture.
  • Picasso displayed extraordinary artistic talent during his early years and painted with a naturalistic style through his childhood and adolescence.
  • In the years following 1906 after 1906, the Fauvist work of somewhat older painter Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to investigate more radical designs.
  • Picasso’s work is usually classified in terms of periods.


4. Frida Kahlo

Surrealism artists

Born: 6 July 1907, Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico

Died: 13 July 1954, Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico

Spouse: Diego Rivera (m. 1940–1954), Diego Rivera (m. 1929–1939)

  • Frida Kahlo was a Mexican painter from Mexico.
  • Influenced by the popular Mexican culture and awe-inspiring, she used a simplistic folk art style to address the notions of postcolonialism, identity, gender class, race, and class and race in Mexican society.
  • Her work often contained strong autobiographical aspects and incorporated realism with fantasy.
  • She is famous for her paintings about her experiences with chronic pain.
  • Kahlo’s interest in art and politics made her a part of her the Mexican Communist Party in 1927.


5. André Breton

Surrealism artists

Born: February 1896, Tinchebray, Tinchebray-Bocage, France

Died: 28 September 1966, Paris, France

Spouse: Elisa Breton (m. 1945–1966), Jacqueline Lamba (m. 1934–1943), Simone Collinet (m. 1921–1931)

  • Andre Breton was a French poet and writer.
  • He is best known for his role as co-founder, leader and the principal surrealist theory-maker.
  • His father, Louis-Justin Breton, was a policeman and atheistic, and his mother, Marguerite-Marie-Eugenie Le Gougues, was a former seamstress.
  • Breton got married for the first time to his wife, Simone Kahn, on 15 September 1921.
  • He played a key in the formation 1924 of the Bureau of Surrealist Research.


6. Max Ernst

Surrealism artists

Born: 2 April 1891, Brühl, Germany

Died: 1 April 1976, Paris, France

Spouse: Dorothea Tanning (m. 1946–1976), MORE

Influenced by: Giorgio de Chirico, Max Stirner, Arnold Böcklin

  • Max Ernst was a painter and sculptor. He also worked as a printmaker, poet and graphic artist.
  • An artist of great stature, Ernst was a primary leader in the Dada movement as well as Surrealism throughout Europe.
  • Ernst is renowned for his innovative drawing techniques and also for his creation of books and pamphlets by employing collages.
  • Max Ernst was born in Bruhl near Cologne, The third child in an upper-middle-class Catholic family.
  • He was the son of Philipp. Philipp had been a professor for deaf people and was an amateur painter. He was also a fervent Christian and an extremely strict disciplinarian.


7. Joan Miró

Surrealism artists

Born: 20 April 1893, Barcelona, Spain

Died: 25 December 1983, Palma, Spain

Periods: Surrealism, Modern art, Dada

Full name: Joan Miró i Ferrà

  • Joan Miro was a Spanish artist, sculptor, and ceramicist who was born in Barcelona.
  • He was famous for his fascination with the unconscious, or subconscious mind, which was reflected in his depiction in the form of a child.
  • Its work is seen as Surrealism but with a distinct style. Sometimes, it also goes towards Fauvism and Expressionism.
  • Born into a family that included two watchmakers and a goldsmith, Miro grew up in the Barri Gotic neighbourhood of Barcelona.
  • He was a student at the Cercle Artistic of Sant Lluc. He held his first solo exhibition in 1918 at Galeries Dalmau.


8. Man Ray

Surrealism artists

Born: 27 August 1890, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Died: 18 November 1976, Paris, France

Partner: Lee Miller

Spouse: Juliet Man Ray (m. 1946–1976), Adon Lacroix (m. 1914–1937)

  • Man Ray was an American artist who lived the majority of his time in Paris.
  • He was a key influencer in both the Dada as well as the Surrealist movements, though his connections to both were not formal.
  • He created major works using various media, but he considered himself a painter most of all else.
  • He is most famous for his groundbreaking photography and was also a well-known photographer of fashion and portraits.
  • He is also renowned for his work on photograms, which he referred to as “rayographs” in reference to himself.


9. Leonora Carrington

Surrealism artists

Born: 6 April 1917, Clayton Green, Clayton-le-Woods, United Kingdom

Died: 25 May 2011, Mexico City, Mexico

Children: Pablo Weisz, Gabriel Weisz

  • Mary Leonora Carrington was a British-born Mexican surrealist painter, surrealist, and novelist.
  • She spent the majority part of her life living in Mexico City.
  • Carrington is also a founder of the women’s freedom movement in Mexico during the 1970s.
  • The father of her daughter Harold Wylde Carrington was a thriving textile maker.
  • Her father was against her work in the field of art. However, her mother was supportive of her pursuing it.


10. Marcel Duchamp

Surrealism artists

Born: 28 July 1887, Blainville-Crevon, France

Died: 2 October 1968, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

Periods: Dada, Surrealism, Cubism, Modern art, Conceptual art, Section d’Or

  • Marcel Duchamp was a French painter, sculptor and writer, and chess player.
  • Marcel Duchamp was born at Blainville-Crevon, Normandy, France.
  • At the age of eight, Duchamp followed in his brothers following their footsteps as Duchamp left home and started his education.
  • He was taught drawing in an academic setting by a teacher who tried unsuccessfully to “protect” his students from Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and other avant-garde influences.
  • At 14, his first real art endeavors included watercolors and drawings depicting Suzanne, his younger sister. Suzanne in different poses and doing activities.


11. Remedios Varo

Surrealism artists

Born: 16 December 1908, Anglès, Spain

Died: 8 October 1963, Mexico City, Mexico

Period: Surrealism

Spouse: Gerardo Lizarraga (m. 1930), Benjamin Péret

  • Remedios Varo was a native of Spain. Mexican Surrealist painter.
  • As a result of his work, the family relocated to different places throughout Spain and North Africa.
  • He encouraged independence and enriched her education with books on adventure and science.
  • Varo had a sceptical view of religion. She rejected the religious ethos that shaped her early education and embraced the universalist and liberal ideas that her father had instilled.
  • In 1937, Varo began to meet political activist and artist Esteban Frances. She quit her husband and fought in the Spanish Civil War.


12. Giorgio de Chirico

Surrealism artists

Born: 10 July 1888, Volos, Greece

Died: 20 November 1978, Rome, Italy

Periods: Surrealism, Metaphysical painting, Modern art, Baroque Revival architecture

Full name: Giuseppe Maria Alberto Giorgio de Chirico

  • Giorgio de Chirico was an Italian artist from Italy.
  • His images reflect his love for the philosophical ideas and philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche.
  • In 1919, he was a critic of contemporary art and studying traditional painting techniques, and he worked in a Neoclassical or Neo-Baroque style.
  • De Chirico returned to Italy in 1909 during the summer and spent the next six months living in Milan.
  • In 1910, he started working in a more straightforward style that featured flat, anonymous surfaces.


13. Zdzisław Beksiński

Surrealism artists

Born: 24 February 1929, Sanok, Poland

Died: 21 February 2005, Warsaw, Poland

Movies: The Beksińskis. A Sound and Picture Album, Dziennik zapowiedzianej smierci, From Within

Children: Tomasz Beksiński

  • Zdzislaw Beksinski is a Polish painter as well as a photographer and sculptor.
  • Beksinski painted and drawings in what he described as either a Baroque or Gothic style.
  • His works were created primarily over two time periods.
  • The initial period of work is generally thought to have expressive colour.
  • Beksinski was killed by a knife in his Warsaw apartment in February 2005.


14. Marc Chagall

Surrealism artists

Born: 7 July 1887, Liozna, Belarus

Died: 28 March 1985, Saint Paul de Vence, France

Periods: Surrealism, Cubism, Modern art, Expressionism, Fauvism, Modernism, Symbolism

Place of burial: Saint Paul de Vence, Saint Paul de Vence, France

  • Marc Chagall was a Russian-French artist.
  • The artist was associated with various important artistic styles and produced pieces in various artistic styles, such as drawings, paintings, etc.
  • Born in modern-day Belarus, which was then an integral part of the Russian Empire, he was of Belarusian Jewish origin.
  • The art criticism Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as “the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century.”
  • Also, he painted large-scale pieces that included parts from the ceiling at the Paris Opera.


15. Taro Okamoto

Surrealism artists

Born: 26 February 1911, Tachibana district

Died: 7 January 1996, Tokyo, Japan

Children: Toshiko Okamoto

  • Taro Okamoto is a Japanese artist from Japan.
  • He is well-known for his avant-garde artworks, public sculptures, murals, and sculptures.
  • In 1927, when he was 16, Okamoto began to learn about oil painting from artist Wada Eisaku.
  • The year 1929 was when Okamoto and his extended family took their father on a trip through Europe to sign his father’s obligations under the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
  • A large portion of Okamoto’s formal education resulted from his time in Paris.


16. Vladimir Kush

Surrealism artists

Born: 1965 (age 57 years), Moscow, Russia

Nationality: Russian

Education: Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

Parents: Oleg Kush

  • Vladimir Kush is a Russian surrealist artist, sculptor and painter.
  • He was a student at his school, the Surikov Moscow Art Institute.
  • The oil paintings of his are also available, contributing to his popularity.
  • Kush was born on the 15th of November, 1965 Moscow, Russia.
  • Many of his oil paintings are sold as giclee prints, which in the beginning helped increase his marketability.


17. Paul Klee

Surrealism artists

Born: 18 December 1879, Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland

Died: 29 June 1940, Muralto, Switzerland

Periods: Expressionism, Modern art, Cubism, Surrealism, Der Blaue Reiter, Bauhaus style

  • Paul Klee was a Swiss-born German artist who was born in Germany.
  • His colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky was a professor at The Bauhaus school of design, art, and architectural design in Germany.
  • His works reflect his humorous and sometimes childish perspective of his moods, personal feelings and convictions, and musicality.
  • Paul Klee was born in Munchenbuchsee, Switzerland.
  • He was so gifted on the violin that at the age of 11 years old, he was given an invitation to be an exceptional part of Bern’s Music Association. Bern Music Association.


18. Yves Tanguy

Surrealism artists

Born: 5 January 1900, Paris, France

Died: 15 January 1955, Woodbury, Connecticut, United States

Spouse: Kay Sage (m. 1940–1955), Jeannette Ducrocq Tanguy (m. 1927–1940)

  • Yves Tanguy was a French surrealist artist from France.
  • Both of his parents are of Breton origin.
  • In 1918, Tanguy temporarily joined the navy of merchants, but he was later called up to the Army and met Jacques Prevert.
  • Tanguy was known for becoming wholly immersed in the painting the artist worked on.
  • In 1938, following an encounter with the work of his fellow artist Kay Sage, Tanguy began an affair which eventually resulted in his second marriage.


19. Francis Bacon

Surrealism artists

Born: 28 October 1909, Dublin, Ireland

Died: 28 April 1992, Madrid, Spain

Periods: Expressionism, Surrealism, Cubism

Siblings: Ianthe Bacon, Winifred Bacon, Harley Bacon

  • Francis Bacon was an Irish-born British [1Bacon was an Irish-born British artist who was known for his stark, disturbing images.
  • He gained a reputation for himself as one of the greats of modern art thanks to his distinctive style.
  • His output could be described as variations or sequences of single themes.
  • He claimed that his art career was slowed because he was too long searching for topics that could keep his interest.
  • Despite his existentialist and dark perspective, Bacon was charismatic, knowledgeable, and knowledgeable.


20. Jean Arp

Surrealism artists

Born: 16 September 1886, Strasbourg, France

Died: 7 June 1966, Basel, Switzerland

Spouse: Marguerite Hagenbach (m. 1959–1966), Sophie Taeuber-Arp (m. 1922–1943)

Education: Académie Julian, Arts et Métiers ParisTech

  • Hans Peter Wilhelm Arp was a German-French painter, sculptor and poet.
  • He was referred to as a Dadaist and an abstract painter.
  • In 1912, he visited Munich and met with Wassily Kandinsky, a prominent Russian artist known as an art theorist. Kandinsky encouraged Arp in his work and presented his work to members of the Der Blaue Reiter group.
  • Then, in Berlin around 1913, the artist took 1913 in 1913 by Herwarth Walden, a magazine editor and dealer who was considered one of the more influential names of the European avant-garde.
  • In 1920, in the form of Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grunwald, he set up his Cologne Dada group.


21. Alberto Giacometti

Surrealism artists

Born: 10 October 1901, Borgonovo, Bregaglia, Switzerland

Died: 11 January 1966, Chur, Switzerland

Periods: Surrealism, Modern art, Cubism, Expressionism

  • Alberto Giacometti was a Swiss artist, sculptor, draftsman, and printmaker.
  • He worked and lived primarily in Paris, but he often visited his hometown Borgonovo to visit his family and to work at his work.
  • Giacometti was among the essential sculptors of the 20th century.
  • His work was heavily affected by artistic styles like Cubism and Surrealism.
  • In 1935, he decided to give up 1935 on his Surrealist influences to focus on a deeper analysis of the figurative compositions.


22. Méret Oppenheim

Surrealism artists

Born: 6 October 1913, Berlin, Germany

Died: 15 November 1985, Basel, Switzerland

Period: Surrealism

Full name: Meret Elisabeth Oppenheim

  • Meret Oppenheim was born in Germany. She was a Swiss Surrealist artist and photographer.
  • Meret Oppenheim was born October 6, 1913. She was born in Berlin.
  • In May 1932, Oppenheim was 18 years old; Oppenheim relocated to Paris from Basel.
  • It was her first workspace, in a hotel room in the Montparnasse Hotel in Paris. In the meantime, she mainly created drawings and paintings.


23. Dorothea Tanning

Surrealism artists

Born: 25 August 1910, Galesburg, Illinois, United States

Died: 31 January 2012, Manhattan, New York, United States

Spouse: Max Ernst (m. 1946–1976)

  • Dorothea Margaret Tanning was an American painter from America.
  • Her work, in the beginning, was heavily influenced by Surrealism.
  • Dorothea Tanning was born and raised in Galesburg,
  • Tanning first came across Ernst at a dinner party in 1942.


24. Roberto Matta

Surrealism artists

Born: 11 November 1911, Santiago, Chile

Died: 23 November 2002, Civitavecchia, Italy

Children: Gordon Matta-Clark, Federica Matta, Ramuntcho Matta, Pablo Echaurren, Alisée Matta, Sebastian Matta

  • Roberto Matta was one of the most well-known artists from Chile.
  • Matta had Spanish, Basque and French descent.
  • The artist Breton gave the primary motivation for Chile’s work in art, inspiring his art and even introducing him to the most prominent participants of the Paris Surrealist movement.
  • The first significant blooming of Matta’s work came around 1938 when Matta made the transition from drawing to oil-based painting, which is for which he’s most famous.
  • He was among the first artists to leap into abstraction.


25. Lee Miller

Surrealism artists

Born: 23 April 1907, Poughkeepsie, New York, United States

Died: 21 July 1977, Chiddingly, United Kingdom

Spouse: Roland Penrose (m. 1947–1977), Aziz Eloui Bey (m. 1934–1947)

Children: Antony Penrose

  • Lee Miller was an American photographer and photojournalist from America.
  • She was an actress during the 1920s in New York City in the 1920s before moving to Paris.
  • During the Second World War, she was an official war reporter at Vogueand covered important events like London Blitz. London Blitz.
  • Miller was born on the 23rd of April 1907.
  • His father is of German descent, while the mother of her was Scottish and Irish heritage.

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