Top 25 Romanticism artists who changed its history

The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw the rise of the romantic movement as an aesthetic and literary movement. A diverse group of people with a common concern in passion, imagination, and individualism were the Romanticism artists.

Romanticism was fundamentally opposed to the rationalism and scientific outlook that had characterised the Enlightenment era. Artists instead stressed emotion and intuition, frequently drawing inspiration from nature, the paranormal, and mediaeval and traditional traditions. Also, they promoted the value of the individual experience by emphasising each person’s particular feelings and experiences.

William Blake, whose poetry and artwork explored themes of spirituality, individualism, and the human imagination, is one of the most well-known Romantic painters. Another well-known painter is Francisco Goya, whose dramatic and eerie works explored themes of violence, darkness, and the inexplicable.

1. Francisco Goya

Romanticism artists

Born: 30 March 1746, Fuendetodos, Spain

Died: 16 April 1828, Bordeaux, France

Children: Francisco Javier Goya Bayeu

Siblings: Tomás Goya, Rita Goya, Camilo Goya, Mariano Goya, Jacinta Goya

  • Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes was a romantic Spanish painter and printmaker.
  • He is thought to be the most significant Spanish artist in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
  • His drawings, paintings and engravings reflect modern-day historical events and profoundly influence important 19th and 20th-century artists.
  • Goya is frequently described as the final among his generation of Old Masters and the first of the moderns.
  • He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773.


2. Caspar David Friedrich

Romanticism artists

Born: 5 September 1774, Greifswald, Germany

Died: 7 May 1840, Dresden, Germany

Periods: Romanticism, German Romanticism

Education: University of Greifswald, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

  • Caspar David Friedrich was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter who is often regarded as the greatest German artist of his time.
  • He is most well-known for his symbolic landscapes of the mid-period
  • His primary interest was the study of nature, and his frequent symbolism and non-classical art sought to convey a personal emotional reaction to nature.
  • He was a student in Copenhagen until 1798 before making his way to Dresden.
  • He was born during a time when, all over Europe, increasing disillusionment with society’s materialistic ways led to an appreciation for the growing spirituality.


3. William Blake

Romanticism artists

Born: 28 November 1757, Soho, London, United Kingdom

Died: 12 August 1827, London, United Kingdom

Spouse: Catherine Blake (m. 1782–1827)

Parents: Catherine Wright Armitage Blake, James Blake

Influenced by: John Milton, Dante Alighieri, Emanuel Swedenborg

  • William Blake was an English poet, painter and printmaker.
  • Unnoticed for a long time during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a pivotal person in the history of visual and poetry artwork in the Romantic Age.
  • The year 2002 was the time that Blake got ranked 38 on the BBC’s survey of the 100 Greatest Britons.
  • His poetry and paintings are regarded as an element of the Romantic movement and are described as “Pre-Romantic”.
  • He’s been credited as “a key early proponent of both Romanticism and Nationalism”.


4. Eugène Delacroix

Romanticism artists

Born: 26 April 1798, Saint-Maurice, France

Died: 13 August 1863, Paris, France

Period: Romanticism

Full name: Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix

Place of burial: Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, France

  • Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix was a French Romantic artist who was recognized from the beginning of his professional career as the leading figure for his French Romantic art school.
  • Delacroix did not believe in either bombast or sentimentality His Romanticism was one of an individualist.
  • Delacroix is considered to be one of the oldest Masters of painting and is among the rare artists who was ever captured.
  • His mother was Victoire Oeben, daughter of cabinet maker Jean-Francois Oeben.


5. Percy Bysshe Shelley

Romanticism artists

Born: 4 August 1792, Warnham, United Kingdom

Died: 8 July 1822, Lerici, Italy

Spouse: Mary Shelley (m. 1816–1822), Harriet Westbrook (m. 1811–1816)

Place of burial: Non-Catholic Cemetery, Rome, Italy

  • Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the most important English Romantic poets.
  • American reviewer Harold Bloom describes him as “a master craftsman.
  • Shelley also wrote prose fiction and numerous essays on social, political and philosophical topics.
  • He was the oldest child of Sir Timothy Shelley.
  • He was near his sister and his mother, who helped him hunt, fish and ride.


6. J. M. W. Turner

Romanticism artists

Born: 23 April 1775, Covent Garden, London, United Kingdom

Died: 19 December 1851, Chelsea, London, United Kingdom

Full name: Joseph Mallord William Turner

Education: Royal Academy of Arts

  • Joseph Mallord William Turner was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist.
  • He is famous for his vivid colouring, imaginative landscapes, and violent, sometimes turbulent marine paintings.
  • He left over 550 oil-based paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 pieces of paper.
  • He was endorsed by the most renowned English art critic John Ruskin in 1840.
  • He resided in London throughout his life, keeping his Cockney accent and studiously staying clear of the trappings of fame and fortune.


7. Francesco Hayez

Romanticism artists

Born: 10 February 1791, Venice, Italy

Died: 12 February 1882, Milan, Italy

Periods: Romanticism, Neoclassicism, Academic art

Spouse: Vincenza Scaccia (m. 1817–1869)

Parents: Clare Torcello, Giovanni

  • Francesco Hayez was an Italian painter from Italy.
  • He is considered one of the top artists of Romanticism during the late 19th century in Milan. He is famous for his monumental historical paintings, political allegories, and portraits.
  • Francesco Hayez was from an impoverished family in Venice.
  • He was raised by his mother’s daughter, who married Giovanni Binasco, a well-off shipowner and art collector.
  • In 1809, he was the winner of an award from his hometown, the Academy of Venice, for a one-year stay at the Accademia of San Luca in Rome.


8. John Constable

Romanticism artists

Born: 11 June 1776, East Bergholt, United Kingdom

Died: 31 March 1837, London, United Kingdom

Nationality: British

Children: Charles Golding Constable, Lionel Constable

  • John Constable was an English landscape painter from the Romantic tradition.
  • He is best known for inventing the art of painting landscapes.
  • Even though his works are one of the most sought-after and valuable British art, he was not financially prosperous.
  • He joined the institution after being selected to be a member of the Royal Academy of Arts at 52.
  • The French widely praised his work in France.


9. Gustave Doré

Romanticism artists

Born: 6 January 1832, Strasbourg, France

Died: 23 January 1883, Paris, France

Period: Romanticism

Place of burial: Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, France

  • Gustave Dore was a French artist who worked as an artist, illustrator, and printmaker. Painter.
  • The artist is most well-known for his numerous wood engravings, particularly those that illustrate classic books.
  • They achieved great international fame, and he is also the most well-known artist using this printing technique.
  • While he did not have the typical education at an academy, his work was highly successful throughout his life.


10. Théodore Géricault

Romanticism artists

Born: 26 September 1791, Rouen, France

Died: 26 January 1824, Paris, France

Place of burial: Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, France

Period: Romanticism

  • Theodore Gericault was a French artist and lithographer.
  • He was among the early pioneers of the Romantic movement.
  • During this time at the Louvre, the artist discovered a vitality that he thought was not present in the style of Neoclassicism.
  • Most of it was in Versailles, where he found the stables at the palace open to the public.


11. Ivan Aivazovsky

Romanticism artists

Born: 29 July 1817, Feodosia

Died: 2 May 1900, Feodosia

Period: Romanticism

Place of burial: Surb-Sarkis church, Feodosia

Nationality: Armenian, Russian, Ukrainian

  • Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky was a Russian Romantic painter.
  • He was born to an Armenian family living in Crimea, which is in the Black Sea port of Feodosia in Crimea and was primarily based in Crimea.
  • The most renowned Russian artist of the moment, Aivazovsky, was also popular with people outside the Russian Empire.
  • He held numerous solo shows throughout Europe and in the United States.
  • In his nearly 60-year career, he produced approximately 6,000 works, making him one of the greatest artists of the past.


12. Juan Luna

Romanticism artists

Born: 23 October 1857, Badoc, Philippines

Died: 7 December 1899, Hong Kong

Siblings: Antonio Luna, Joaquin Luna

Spouse: Paz Pardo de Tavera (m. 1886–1892)

  • Juan Luna was a Filipino artist, sculptor and political activist.
  • He was one of the first acknowledged Philippine artists to be recognized in the Philippines.
  • Classical balance influenced his figurative work and often depicted models in stage postures.
  • Vera took Luna to Rome to complete one of his commissions; in addition, Luna became exposed to the work of Renaissance artists.


13. Herman Melville

Romanticism artists

Born: 1 August 1819, New York, New York, United States

Died: 28 September 1891, New York, New York, United States

Spouse: Elizabeth Shaw (m. 1847–1891)

Full name: Herman Melvill

  • Herman Melville was an American novelist, short-story writer and poet of the American Renaissance.
  • Melville was born in New York City, the third child of a wealthy merchant, whose death in 1832 had the family in financial difficulties.
  • He sailed the seas in 1839 as an ordinary sailor on a merchant ship.
  • He relocated to New York in 1863, later assuming a United States customs inspector position.
  • In 1886, his second son Stanwix passed away from tuberculosis.


14. Carl Spitzweg

Romanticism artists

Born: 5 February 1808, Munich, Germany

Died: 23 September 1885, Munich, Germany

Place of burial: Alter Südfriedhof, Munich, Germany

Education: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (1830–1832), University of Vienna

  • Carl Spitzweg was a German romanticist painter interested in genre subjects.
  • He is regarded as one of the most significant artists of Biedermeier’s era.
  • His father was a successful merchant and had Carl educated as a pharmacist.
  • He was awarded his diploma at Munich’s University of Munich.
  • Spitzweg was a self-taught artist. He began by copying the work from Flemish masters.
  • His first piece of work was published in satirical magazines.


15. John Ruskin

Romanticism artists

Born: 8 February 1819, London, United Kingdom

Died: 20 January 1900, Brantwood, United Kingdom

Spouse: Effie Gray (m. 1848–1854)

Parents: Margaret Ruskin, John James Ruskin

  • John Ruskin was an English writer, philosopher, art critic, philosopher and polymath from the Victorian time.
  • He wrote about topics such as geology.
  • Ruskin’s style of writing and literary genres were also different.
  • He wrote treatizes, essays, poetry, and lectures—travel guides and guides.
  • The elaborate style of his first writing on art gave way over time to more straightforward language intended to communicate his ideas more efficiently.


16. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Romanticism artists

Born: 16 July 1796, Paris, France

Died: 22 February 1875, Paris, France

Periods: Realism, Romanticism

Nationality: French

  • Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot is a French landscape and portrait painter and a printmaker in etching.
  • He is a significant artist in the field of landscape painting, and his extensive output was simultaneously a reference to the Neo-Classical tradition.
  • When his parents got married, they purchased the millinery shop where his mother worked. In addition, the father resigned from his job as a wigmaker overseeing business aspects.
  • Corot was the third of three children born into the same family who lived in the shop during that time.
  • He immediately rented a studio located on the Quai Voltaire.


17. Thomas Gainsborough

Romanticism artists

Born: 14 May 1727, Sudbury, United Kingdom

Died: 2 August 1788, London, United Kingdom

Periods: Rococo, Romanticism

Children: Mary Gainsborough, Mary Gainsborough Fischer, Margaret Gainsborough

Place of burial: Saint Anne’s Parish Church, Richmond, United Kingdom

  • Thomas Gainsborough was an English artist of landscapes and portraits.
  • He was quick to paint, and his soft palette and effortless strokes characterize his works of maturation.
  • The year was 1746. Gainsborough was married to Margaret Burr, the child of the Duke of Beaufort. Duke of Beaufort had settled an annuity of PS200 on her.
  • He returned to Sudbury in 1748-1749 to work on portraits.
  • It was 1759 when Gainsborough and his wife relocated to Bath 1759, where they rented a house at 17 The Circus.


18. Albert Bierstadt

Romanticism artists

Born: 7 January 1830, Solingen, Germany

Died: 18 February 1902, New York, New York, United States

Periods: Hudson River School, Romanticism, Luminism

Education: Kunstakademie Düsseldorf (1853–1857)

  • Albert Bierstadt was a German-American artist best known for his sprawling, lavish paintings of landscapes from his native American West.
  • He was a part of numerous journeys from that Westward Expansion to paint the scenes.
  • He was not the only artist to capture the sites; he was the most prolific painter of them throughout the rest of the 19th century.
  • He returned to painting for a few months in Dusseldorf.
  • He was part of the 2nd generation at the Hudson River School in New York.


19. Henry Fuseli

Romanticism artists

Born: 7 February 1741, Zürich, Switzerland

Died: 16 April 1825, Putney, London, United Kingdom

Periods: Romanticism, Sturm und Drang

Spouse: Sophia Rawlins (m. 1788–1825)

  • Henry Fuseli was a Swiss artist, draughtsman, and writer.
  • His style significantly influenced younger British artists such as William Blake.
  • He wanted Henry to be a priest and took him to the Caroline college in Zurich in Zurich, where he received outstanding classical training.
  • The Milton collection contained 47 Milton paintings, some of which were highly huge and were completed over nine years.
  • He painted everything in a perfect size, believing that a certain amount of exaggeration was necessary for the upper reaches of painting from the past.


20. Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Romanticism artists

Born: 8 January 1836, Dronrijp, Netherlands

Died: 25 June 1912, Wiesbaden, Germany

Spouse: Laura Theresa Alma-Tadema (m. 1871–1909), Marie-Pauline Gressin Dumoulin (m. 1863–1869)

Place of burial: St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, United Kingdom

  • Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema was a Dutch artist who eventually settled in the United Kingdom and became a country citizen.
  • His mother was an artist and decided that drawing lessons must be integrated into children’s schooling.
  • He began his art instruction from an art teacher from his local community appointed to teach his elder half-brothers.
  • In 1852, he enrolled 1852 at the Royal Academy of Antwerp in Belgium, where he took classes in the earliest Dutch and Flemish art.
  • He was inspired to show the accuracy of his time in his paintings. This was one of the reasons the artist gained a reputation.


21. Raden Saleh

Romanticism artists

Born: Semarang, Indonesia

Died: 23 April 1880, Bogor City, Indonesia

Spouse: Raden Ayu Danudirdja (m. 1867–1880)

Period: Romanticism

  • Raden Saleh was the first Indonesian Romantic painter of Arab-Javanese ethnicity.
  • He was believed to be one of the very first “modern” artists from Indonesia.
  • He also spoke about his cultural roots and the creativity in his work.
  • A teacher initially instructed the young Raden Saleh in Bogor with the help of the Belgian art guru A.J. Payen.
  • He came to Europe in 1829 and began studying with Cornelius Kruseman and Andreas Schelfhout.


22. Karl Bryullov

Romanticism artists

Born: 12 December 1799, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Died: 11 June 1852, Manziana, Italy

Siblings: Alexander Brullov

  • Karl Pavlovich Bryullov was a Russian painter from Russia.
  • He is considered an essential figure in the change from Russian Romanticism to neoclassicism.
  • After spotting himself as an enthralling and creative student, he completed his studies.
  • Bryullov significantly impacted Russian artists, and Bryullov had many admirers and imitations.


23. Shigeru Aoki

Romanticism artists

Born: 13 July 1882, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan

Died: 25 March 1911, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

Education: Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts, Fukuoka Prefectural Meizen High School, Azabu Junior and Senior High School

  • Shigeru Aoki is a Japanese painter from Japan.
  • Aoki was born into an ex-samurai family in Japan.
  • While his family was not a fan of his love for art, he emigrated from his home in 1899 to study in Tokyo.
  • Aoki was a graduate from the university in 1904.
  • Then, in August of 1905, the family moved to the present-day Chikusei, Ibaraki, where his son was born by his common-law spouse Tane Fukuda.


24. Konstantin Makovsky

Romanticism artists

Born: 2 July 1839, Moscow, Russia

Died: 17 September 1915, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Children: Sergey Makovsky, Wladimir Makovsky

  • Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky was an influential Russian painter of the Russian Revolution.
  • He is frequently regarded as to be a symbol of Academic art.
  • The father of his son was a Russian art artist and amateur Egor Makovsky. His mother was a composer.
  • He enrolled at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture at 12.
  • He continued to travel to North Africa and Serbia in the late 1870s.


25. Paul Delaroche

Romanticism artists

Born: 17 July 1797, Paris, France

Died: 4 November 1856, France

Education: National School of Fine Arts

  • Paul Delaroche was a French painter who enjoyed most excellent success painting historical scenes.
  • The artist became famous throughout Europe because of his theatrical portrayals, which often depicted subjects from English and French historical periods.
  • Delaroche was determined to paint his subjects and his history using realistic realism.
  • He didn’t consider the popular notions and standards in his work.
  • Delaroche is a generation member who witnessed the stylistic clashes between Romanticism and Davidian Classicism.

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